Modelling (“modeling” in American) is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artist, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is almost never considered modelling.Model (from Middle French modèle//aew),
[1] sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed to display, advertise and promote commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a subject of works of art.

There are several types of models including fashion models, commercial print models, glamour models, fit models, and fine arts models.[2] In the fashion world, models are divided into two categories: editorial and commercial. While most fashion models do editorial work, editorial models are regarded as high fashion models. They most notably participate in fashion shows and are seen in magazines such as Vogue. A good example of an editorial model would be Cindy Crawford, Naomi Campbell, and Kate Moss. Commercial fashion models, while they may also appear in fashion magazines and advertisements, they most notably advertise products. Some notable commercial fashion models are Irina Shayk, Bar Refaeli, and Josie Maran.

There are many sub-genres of modelling including fashion editorial, lifestyle editorial, runway, commercials, catalog, glamour, fitness, beauty, fine art, and lifestyle. Each sub-genre is associated with a certain type of modelling. Fashion models may work in any sub-genre. However, other models such as glamour models and commercial print (sometimes referred to as lifestyle models) are limited based on certain requirements.


Fashion models



Early years

The modelling profession was first established in 1853 by house model” was coined to described the type of work. Eventually, this became a common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no model measurement requirements and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of [8] It was also during the 1950s that pin-up models originated.

The 1960s and the evolution of industry

In the 1960s, the modelling world was just starting to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rate for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models also were responsible for their own billing. In [9]

By the late 1960s, London was the best market in Europe due to their more organized approach to modelling, which innovated the modelling industry. It was during this time models became house hold names. Models like [11] At this time, model agencies weren't as restrictive about the models they represented and it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5'6″ with a 32″ bust and had boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour when the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967 seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents (ALMA). The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at the shoot. However, agencies took the responsibility of a models promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model [13] By the late 1960s, models were treated being treated better and making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models who didn't live locally to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

In February 1968, an article in [16]

The 1970s and 1980s

The innovation of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result model industry association and standards,[18]

The 1970s marked numerous milestones in fashion. [20]

Most of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970s and early 1980s. These agencies created the standard in which agencies now run. In 1974, Singapore which was one of the first chain agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980s, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marylin, and Metropolitan Models were established.

By the 1980s, most models were able to make modelling a full-time profession. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980 Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Super Model of the World contest.[26] It was estimated that Hensen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980s.

The 1990s to present

The early 1990s were dominated by the supermodels of the late 1980s. In 1990, Linda Evangelista said to Vogue that “we don’t wake up for less than $10,000 a day”. This comment completely changed the landscape of supermodels. Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Linda Evangelista, and Stephanie Seymour became the most recognizble supermodels, catapulting each of them into superstardom and wealth.[27] In 1991, Christy Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid?1990s, a new movement emerged called Claudia Schiffer earned a staggering $12 million, proving the industry was more versatile than previous decades. The mid?1990s also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990s, the heroin chic era ran its course. By the late 1990s teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion. Pop music was on the rise and artists like [28]

In the 2000s, the Brazilians bombshells were still in demand but quickly fell out of favor on the runways. On the other side of the spectrum, editorial clients were favoring models who had a china-doll or alien look to them, such as [32]

Editorial fashion models

While an editorial is a photo spread in a magazine in which different types of models may appear in, editorial is often used to categorize fashion models who appear in high fashion magazines and walk in runway shows. In the fashion modelling, editorial is a shortened form of editorial fashion model and is used to differentiate between commercial fashion models. The major difference between editorial and commercial models is the overall look of the model. They tend to be edgier and thinner than their commercial peers. Editorial models are predominantly over 5'9″ with measurements near 34-24-34. Some examples of editorial models are [34]

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called “live models” and are self-employed. Runway models work in different locations, constantly traveling between those cities where fashion is well known – Beijing.

The demands for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. The models turn and stand to demonstrate the garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called “go and sees”) and must keep a portfolio of their work. They go to modelling interviews to find more work. The more experience a model has, the more likely she is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, creating product lines, acting etc.[35]:191-192

The British [39]

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form a selective criteria by which established and would?be models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis—with some variation regionally and market tier-level dependent, subject, too, to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era—by agents, agencies and end-clients.

The former requirement measurements for models used to be 35.5-23.5-35.5 in (90-60-90 cm), which were the alleged measurements of citation needed] Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape. Although in some fashion centers [regionally speaking, of course], a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' catwalk.

In the early 21st century, runway walks became less flamboyant compared to the late 20th century, when Naomi Campbell and other supermodels were known for their distinct struts. Instead, most designers preferred a natural stroll.[43]

Commercial fashion models

Commercial fashion models range between the height of 5'7″ up to 6'0″ and have a healthier athletic build. They predominately do catalog, lifestyle magazine editorials like Cosmopolitan and Shape magazine, television commercials like Pantene, swimwear campaigns, lingerie campaigns, and ad campaigns. Most models who appear in Sports Illustrated and Victoria's Secret tend to be commercial models.[44] Commercial models may appear in high fashion editorials or walk in ready to wear shows, but usually earn their living by commercial modelling. A good an example of this would Marissa Miller who has appeared in Vogue and walked runways in Europe but ultimately is a commercial model. Typically, models who walk in Mercedes Benz Fashion Week in Miami tend to be commercial models as they focus on swimwear.


According to Forbes and the Guinness Book, the richest model in the world is Brazilian Gisele Bündchen[45]

Supermodels are highly paid, high profile fashion models with a great amount of experience. These celebrities appear on top fashion magazine covers, national advertisements such as commercials or spreads and in brand ambassador. Teenage models also plays a major role in the fashion industry as they are also very demanded.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Jean-Paul Gaulthier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Commercial print model

Commercial print modelling is also known as lifestyle modelling or real people modelling depending on the model agency. There is no age or height requirement. The average commercial print client request that female models be 5'6″ and male models be 5'10”. However, its not uncommon to see female lifestyle models who are shorter. With men, they are expected to be over 5'9″. These models are not fashion models. While they land similar work to commercial fashion models, they generally appear in print ads for non-fashion orientated products and television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour as well as earn bonuses.[48]

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions including Metropolitan Models in Paris.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses solely on sexuality. Therefore, there are no requirements to be a glamour model other than the ability to pose nude. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in Playboy, adult lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in movies. However, extremely popular glamour models often transition into commercial print modelling appearing in swimwear and lingerie campaigns.


It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It wasn't until the 1990s that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous women which left a void. Several fashion models who were deemed to commercial and too curvacious were fed up with industry standard and took a different approach. Models like Baywatch.

In the mid-1990s, a series of men's magazines were established such as [59]

Parts models

Some models are employed for their particularly attractive body parts. For example, [64]

Leg models, such as U.K based Zara Miller, showcase tights, stockings, socks and leg grooming products. Wrist models display watches or bracelets. Petite models (females under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women body part modelling.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying an athletic physique. Fitness models usually have the defined muscles of citation needed] Fitnes models tend to be commercial fashion models or more successful commercial print models (lifestyle models). However, there are a lot of athletes who fitness model. There are several agencies in large modelling markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. while there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency to these models who typical earn their money as commercial models.

Promotional model

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. A vast majority of promotional models typically tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing.

This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company, is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience. The influence of this type of marketing may be more enduring as well. Promotional models often interact with many people at once to maximize quantitative influence on consumer demand. The responsibilities of the promotional model depend on the particular marketing campaign being carrying out, and may include:

  • increasing product awareness
  • providing product information
  • creating an association in the consumer's mind between the product or brand and a particular idea (natural beauty, classic heritage, edgy sex appeal, reliability)
  • handing items to consumers, such as a sample of the product itself, a small gift, or printed information

tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often planned at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Changing social and business standards have resulted in a decrease in the use of promotional models in both the construction industry and automobile trade shows.[65]


“Spokesmodel” is a term used for a model who employed to be associated with a specific Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Contrary to what the term suggests, a spokesmodel is normally not expected to verbally promote the brand.

Trade show model

Trade show models work a trade show floorspace or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons. Trade show models make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. Also, trade show models are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product and service, and can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, therefore increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show. Trade show models can be skilled at drawing attendees into the booth, engaging them in conversation, and at spurring interest in the product, service, or company. Trade show models may be highly skilled at screening the mass of show attendees for target consumers or at obtaining attendee information so that they may be solicited after the show.

Attire varies and depends on the nature of the show, and on the image the company would like to portray. They may wear a dress, or simple but flattering business attire. They sometimes wear wardrobe that is particular to the company, product, or service represented. The slang term “booth babe” is often used to refer to a trade show model. The term focuses on physical appearance, or specifically on wardrobe, which, depending on the type of trade show, can be thematic or sexy. For example, at a builder's convention a model may be dressed as a construction worker with cut-offs, tight t-shirt, tool belt, and hard hat. Women that work at a car show or similar event are often called ‘car show girls', ‘paddock girls.

Convention model

A convention model is an assistant that works with a company's sales representatives at a trade show exhibit. They are used to draw in attendees and provide them with basic information about product or services. Convention models may be used to distribute marketing materials or gather customer information for future promotions.

Main article: Model (art)Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid, highly skilled human subjects, who aid in creating any work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. For example, Norman Rockwell used his friends and neighbors as models for both his commercial and fine art work. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model. Models are also employed privately by professional artists.


Throughout the history of Western art, drawing the human figure from living models was considered the most useful way to develop the skill of draftsmanship. First, it is best to draw from real objects, rather than copying two dimensional images.props, one or more other models, against real or artificial background, in natural or artificial light and so on.

The role of art models has changed through different eras as the meaning and importance of the human figure in art and society has changed,.[72]


Like most jobs, a models salary is directly proportional to the market in which they work and the level of experience they may have.

Fashion models

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average fashion model working in the United States earns $66,000.[73] Since fashion models are scouted at a very young age, they spend the first couple of years making very little money as they are testing and working for lower echelon clients while developing their portfolios. Once a model makes it to the mainboard, they start earning more due to the diversity of their work.

Fashion print

A model earns different rates for different types of work. For instance, a model will earn his or her day rate for editorial print. For catalog work, a model can earn anywhere from $200 to $300 an hour. Depending on the length of the assignment, a model can earn anywhere from $1,200.00 to $3,500.00 for a days work.[74]

Fragrance and exclusive designer advertising campaigns are the most lucrative. High-end catalog photo shoots pay an average of $8,000 to $15,000 per day and typically last one day. Models for luxury brand campaigns are paid from $40,000 to $1,000,000 and fragrance campaigns pay from $100,000 to $1,000,000.[35]:189


A model's rate for commercials can range anywhere from $2000 and up, not including residuals.[74] The amount of money a model can earn off of residuals depends on how long the campaign runs and where it runs.

Runway modelling

Fashion Week happens twice a year in most markets. Each market has their own fashion week. Models can earn $250.00 per hour and up.[78] Exclusives are coveted as they help launch and propel high fashion careers.

Male models

The most famous male models earn from $200,000 to $500,000 per year. Most make a less glamorous living from catalog work.[81]

Plus size models

Plus size models earn the same as fashion models unless they are a commercial print or glamour model. The only difference in plus size modelling and non-plus size modelling is the size of clothes the model wear or advertises. Plus size models can model any product that regular models can. Thus, they earn the same as their thinner peers.

Parts models

Since this is a specialty, the rates for parts modelling are significantly higher. A model can earn $300 to $500 an hour.[74]

Fit modelling

Models who meet specific measurement requirements can be a fit model. Fit models can earn $150.00 per hour and up.

Showroom modelling

Showroom modelling can earn a model anywhere from $1,000.00 and up.[74]

Commercial print models

Since commercial print models usually look like the average person, they are not as hard to find. There are significantly more commercial print models and actors to fulfill the needs of these clients. Since less than 1% of the world meets the requirements to be a fashion model, fashion models earn more money due to high demand and lack of talents. While commercial print models earn $75.00 to $150.00 per hour with day rate $400.00 to $950.00, they don't work nearly as often as their fashion model peers. Print advertisements for real people models usually has a day rate of $500.00 to $1,200.00.[82] Print models who work with an agent give 15% to 20% of earnings to the agent.Depending on the market and the agency, a commercial print model can earn $10,000 to $40,000 a year or more depending on how much work the land.

Glamour modelling

As glamour models are a dime a dozen, it's incredibly difficult landing enough jobs to earn a steady salary. Many amateur models make the mistake of doing glamour work for [50] There are adult lingerie catalogs where a glamour model can earn about $4,000 a day, but there isn't enough glamour catalog work to go around. Obtaining that type of work is difficult depending on what market you work in. As many markets don't have glamour modelling agencies a lot of glamour models are freelance, meaning they find work themselves. The lucky ones are represented by commercial print or talent agencies.

Video Vixens, otherwise known hip-hop videos, earn the same as an extra in a movie. A non-union extra earns $64.[83] Principals models earn more but most hip-hop music videos don't feature principal models like pop videos do.

Promotional modelling

Anyone can be a promotional model. More often than not, commercial print models moonlight as promotional models. Since promotional modelling usually occurs at night or on the weekends, commercial print models usually moonlight as promotional models to help supplement their salary. However, you do not have to be a working model in order to be a promotional model. A promotional model can earn anywhere from $15.00 to $30.00 per hour.[84] Typically, this type of job is found by word of mouth or internet forums such as Craigslist. There are very few promotional modelling agencies in the world. Most of them only represent working models. Aspiring promotional models should be aware of scams. Other forms of promotional model include trade show modelling can merit a day rate of $200. However, it is expected for the model manage the booth which includes answering question about the service or product. Convention modelling is the same as trade show modelling. The only difference is the amount of money spent of the presentation. The models are educated on the product or service and are expected to use presentation aids. Trade show models can earn $1,000 to $4,000. All types of promotional are sporadic and can not be used to earn a living.

Art modelling

Unlike other types of modelling, there are essentially no qualifications for being an art model other than the ability to hold still. As a result, the rate of pay in art schools is low, on average only two or three times the minimum wage in the US. In some countries there are organizations which concern themselves with the competence, conduct and reliability of art models. An example is the Register of Artists' Models (RAM) in the United Kingdom.[91]

There is controversy regarding the status of photography as a fine arts medium that is reflected in the unwillingness of most nude models for other media also posing for photography.[92] Although largely a result of her fame, the model does not share in this increased value of the artwork.

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External links

Model Media related to Models (people) at Wikimedia Commons

Source: Wikipedia